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UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
Form 10-Q
(MARK ONE)
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the quarterly period ended June 30, 2023
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from              to               .
Commission File No. 001-35779
USA Compression Partners, LP
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Delaware
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
75-2771546
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
111 Congress Avenue, Suite 2400
Austin, Texas
(Address of principal executive offices)
78701
(Zip Code)
(512) 473-2662
(Registrant’s telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common units representing limited partner interestsUSACNew York Stock Exchange
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes ☒  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes ☒  No 
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer ☐
Non-accelerated filer ☐
Smaller reporting company
Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act. ☐
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).  Yes   No ☒
As of July 27, 2023, there were 98,278,456 common units outstanding.



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GLOSSARY
The abbreviations, acronyms and industry terminology used in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q are defined as follows:
Credit AgreementSeventh Amended and Restated Credit Agreement, dated as of December 8, 2021, by and among USA Compression Partners, LP, as borrower, the guarantors party thereto from time to time, the lenders party thereto from time to time, as may be amended from time to time, and any predecessor thereto if the context so dictates
CPIConsumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers
DERsdistribution equivalent rights
DRIPdistribution reinvestment plan
Energy TransferEnergy Transfer LP
Exchange ActSecurities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended
GAAPgenerally accepted accounting principles of the United States of America
Preferred UnitsSeries A Preferred Units representing limited partner interests in USA Compression Partners, LP
SECUnited States Securities and Exchange Commission
Senior Notes 2026$725.0 million aggregate principal amount of senior notes due on April 1, 2026
Senior Notes 2027$750.0 million aggregate principal amount of senior notes due on September 1, 2027
SOFRSecured Overnight Financing Rate
U.S.United States of America

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PART I.  FINANCIAL INFORMATION
ITEM 1.    Financial Statements
USA COMPRESSION PARTNERS, LP
Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets
(in thousands)
June 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Assets
Current assets:
Cash and cash equivalents$31 $35 
Accounts receivable, net of allowances for credit losses of $1,237 and $1,164, respectively
86,810 83,822 
Related-party receivables2,875 52 
Inventories101,419 93,754 
Derivative instrument10,294  
Prepaid expenses and other assets10,147 8,784 
Total current assets211,576 186,447 
Property and equipment, net2,187,255 2,172,924 
Lease right-of-use assets17,485 18,195 
Derivative instrument, long term3,040  
Identifiable intangible assets, net260,342 275,032 
Other assets11,340 13,126 
Total assets$2,691,038 $2,665,724 
Liabilities, Preferred Units, and Partners’ Deficit
Current liabilities:
Accounts payable$36,627 $35,303 
Accrued liabilities87,891 76,016 
Deferred revenue62,981 62,345 
Total current liabilities187,499 173,664 
Long-term debt, net2,212,792 2,106,649 
Operating lease liabilities15,132 16,146 
Other liabilities6,496 8,255 
Total liabilities2,421,919 2,304,714 
Commitments and contingencies
Preferred Units477,309 477,309 
Partners’ deficit:
Common units, 98,278 and 98,228 units issued and outstanding, respectively
(217,002)(125,111)
Warrants8,812 8,812 
Total partners’ deficit(208,190)(116,299)
Total liabilities, Preferred Units, and partners’ deficit$2,691,038 $2,665,724 
See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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USA COMPRESSION PARTNERS, LP
Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations
(in thousands, except per unit amounts)
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Revenues:
Contract operations$196,982 $163,969 $385,521 $321,637 
Parts and service4,102 3,605 7,980 5,531 
Related party5,836 3,887 10,543 7,705 
Total revenues206,920 171,461 404,044 334,873 
Costs and expenses:
Cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization69,922 55,158 136,587 108,890 
Depreciation and amortization60,039 58,959 119,525 118,023 
Selling, general, and administrative14,950 13,914 34,051 29,179 
Loss (gain) on disposition of assets309 1,031 (67)852 
Impairment of compression equipment10,273  11,464 432 
Total costs and expenses155,493 129,062 301,560 257,376 
Operating income51,427 42,399 102,484 77,497 
Other income (expense):
Interest expense, net(42,045)(33,079)(81,835)(64,917)
Gain on derivative instrument14,550  14,550  
Other57 21 81 41 
Total other expense(27,438)(33,058)(67,204)(64,876)
Net income before income tax expense23,989 9,341 35,280 12,621 
Income tax expense405 255 755 281 
Net income23,584 9,086 34,525 12,340 
Less: distributions on Preferred Units(12,188)(12,188)(24,375)(24,375)
Net income (loss) attributable to common unitholders’ interests$11,396 $(3,102)$10,150 $(12,035)
Weighted-average common units outstanding – basic98,271 97,728 98,259 97,547 
Weighted-average common units outstanding – diluted99,694 97,728 99,738 97,547 
Basic net income (loss) per common unit$0.12 $(0.03)$0.10 $(0.12)
Diluted net income (loss) per common unit$0.11 $(0.03)$0.10 $(0.12)
Distributions declared per common unit for respective periods$0.525 $0.525 $1.05 $1.05 
See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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USA COMPRESSION PARTNERS, LP
Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Changes in Partners’ Capital (Deficit)
(in thousands, except per unit amounts)
For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2023
Common unitsWarrantsTotal
Partners’ capital (deficit) ending balance, December 31, 2022
$(125,111)$8,812 $(116,299)
Distributions and DERs, $0.525 per unit
(51,602) (51,602)
Issuance of common units under the DRIP617  617 
Unit-based compensation for equity-classified awards69  69 
Net loss attributable to common unitholders’ interests(1,246) (1,246)
Partners’ capital (deficit) ending balance, March 31, 2023(177,273)8,812 (168,461)
Distributions and DERs, $0.525 per unit
(51,617) (51,617)
Issuance of common units under the DRIP423  423 
Unit-based compensation for equity-classified awards69  69 
Net income attributable to common unitholders’ interests11,396  11,396 
Partners’ capital (deficit) ending balance, June 30, 2023$(217,002)$8,812 $(208,190)
For the Six Months Ended June 30, 2022
Common unitsWarrantsTotal
Partners’ capital ending balance, December 31, 2021
$87,129 $13,979 $101,108 
Distributions and DERs, $0.525 per unit
(51,137) (51,137)
Issuance of common units under the DRIP516  516 
Unit-based compensation for equity-classified awards64  64 
Net loss attributable to common unitholders’ interests(8,933) (8,933)
Partners’ capital ending balance, March 31, 202227,639 13,979 41,618 
Distributions and DERs, $0.525 per unit
(51,154) (51,154)
Issuance of common units under the DRIP508  508 
Unit-based compensation for equity-classified awards65  65 
Exercise and conversion of warrants into common units5,167 (5,167) 
Net loss attributable to common unitholders’ interests(3,102) (3,102)
Partners’ capital (deficit) ending balance, June 30, 2022$(20,877)$8,812 $(12,065)
See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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USA COMPRESSION PARTNERS, LP
Unaudited Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows
(in thousands)
Six Months Ended June 30,
20232022
Cash flows from operating activities:
Net income$34,525 $12,340 
Adjustments to reconcile net income to net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization119,525 118,023 
Provision for expected credit losses (700)
Amortization of debt issuance costs3,641 3,637 
Unit-based compensation expense9,628 6,708 
Deferred income tax expense (benefit)19 (183)
Loss (gain) on disposition of assets(67)852 
Change in fair value of derivative instrument(13,334) 
Impairment of compression equipment11,464 432 
Changes in assets and liabilities:
Accounts receivable and related-party receivables, net(5,811)(4,598)
Inventories(31,818)(11,159)
Prepaid expenses and other current assets(1,364)(3,009)
Other assets2,148 1,562 
Accounts payable583 (1,452)
Accrued liabilities and deferred revenue1,070 6,829 
Net cash provided by operating activities130,209 129,282 
Cash flows from investing activities:
Capital expenditures, net(106,402)(43,818)
Proceeds from disposition of property and equipment1,093 764 
Proceeds from insurance recovery 184 
Net cash used in investing activities(105,309)(42,870)
Cash flows from financing activities:
Proceeds from revolving credit facility511,766 382,884 
Payments on revolving credit facility(407,283)(340,562)
Cash distributions on common units(104,407)(103,536)
Cash distributions on Preferred Units(24,375)(24,375)
Deferred financing costs(379)(549)
Other(226)(274)
Net cash used in financing activities(24,904)(86,412)
Decrease in cash and cash equivalents(4) 
Cash and cash equivalents, beginning of period35  
Cash and cash equivalents, end of period$31 $ 
Supplemental cash flow information:
Cash paid for interest, net of capitalized amounts$78,181 $60,239 
Cash paid for income taxes$887 $798 
Supplemental non-cash transactions:
Non-cash distributions to certain common unitholders (DRIP)$1,040 $1,024 
Transfers from inventories to property and equipment, net$24,053 $6,692 
Changes in capital expenditures included in accounts payable and accrued liabilities$1,125 $11,023 
Changes in financing costs included in accounts payable and accrued liabilities$6 $(265)
Exercise and conversion of warrants into common units$ $5,167 
See accompanying notes to unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
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USA COMPRESSION PARTNERS, LP
NOTES TO UNAUDITED CONDENSED CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(1) Organization and Description of Business
Unless otherwise indicated, the terms “our,” “we,” “us,” “the Partnership,” and similar language refer to USA Compression Partners, LP, collectively with its consolidated subsidiaries.
We are a Delaware limited partnership. Through our operating subsidiaries, we provide natural gas compression services to customers under fixed-term contracts in the natural gas and crude oil industries, using compression packages that we design, engineer, own, operate, and maintain. We also own and operate a fleet of equipment used to provide natural gas treating services, such as carbon dioxide and hydrogen sulfide removal, cooling, and dehydration. We provide compression services in shale plays throughout the U.S., including the Utica, Marcellus, Permian Basin, Delaware Basin, Eagle Ford, Mississippi Lime, Granite Wash, Woodford, Barnett, Haynesville, Niobrara, and Fayetteville shales.
USA Compression GP, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company, serves as our general partner and is referred to herein as the “General Partner.” The General Partner is wholly owned by Energy Transfer.
The accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Partnership and its subsidiaries, all of which are wholly owned by us.
(2) Basis of Presentation and Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
Our accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with GAAP and pursuant to SEC rules and regulations.
In the opinion of our management, financial information presented herein reflects all normal recurring adjustments necessary for the fair presentation of these interim unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in accordance with GAAP. Operating results for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, are not necessarily indicative of the results that may be expected for the year ending December 31, 2023. Certain information and footnote disclosures normally included in annual consolidated financial statements prepared in accordance with GAAP have been condensed or omitted in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. Therefore, these unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements should be read in conjunction with our audited consolidated financial statements contained in our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed on February 14, 2023 (our “2022 Annual Report”).
Use of Estimates
Our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with GAAP, which includes the use of estimates and assumptions by management that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues, expenses, and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities that existed as of the date of the unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. Although these estimates were based on management’s available knowledge of current and expected future events, actual results could differ from these estimates.
Significant Accounting Policies
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents consist of all cash balances. We consider investments in highly liquid financial instruments purchased with an original maturity of 90 days or less to be cash equivalents.
Trade Accounts Receivable
Trade accounts receivable are recorded at their invoiced amounts.
Allowance for Credit Losses
We evaluate allowance for credit losses with reference to our trade accounts receivable balances, which are measured at amortized cost. Due to the short-term nature of our trade accounts receivable, we consider the amortized cost of trade accounts receivable to equal the receivable’s carrying amounts, excluding the allowance for credit losses.
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Our determination of the allowance for credit losses requires us to make estimates and judgments regarding our customers’ ability to pay amounts due. We continuously evaluate the financial strength of our customers and the overall business climate in which our customers operate, and make adjustments to the allowance for credit losses as necessary. We evaluate the financial strength of our customers by reviewing the aging of their receivables owed to us, our collection experiences with the customer, correspondence, financial information, and third-party credit ratings. We evaluate the business climate in which our customers operate by reviewing various publicly available materials regarding our customers’ industry, including the solvency of various companies in the industry.
Inventories
Inventories consist of serialized and non-serialized parts primarily used on compression units. All inventories are stated at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Serialized parts inventories are determined using the specific-identification cost method, while non-serialized parts inventories are determined using the weighted-average cost method. Purchases of inventories are considered operating activities within the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment are carried at cost except for (i) certain acquired assets which are recorded at fair value on their respective acquisition dates and (ii) impaired assets which are recorded at fair value as of the last impairment evaluation date for which an adjustment was required. Overhauls and major improvements that increase the value or extend the life of compression equipment are capitalized and depreciated over three to five years. Ordinary maintenance and repairs are charged to cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization.
When property and equipment is retired or sold, the associated carrying value and the related accumulated depreciation are removed from our accounts and any related gains or losses are recorded within the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations within the period of sale or disposition.
Capitalized interest is calculated by multiplying our monthly effective interest rate on outstanding variable-rate indebtedness by the amount of qualifying costs, which include upfront payments to acquire certain compression units. Capitalized interest was $0.3 million and $0.6 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, respectively, and $0.2 million and $0.3 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The carrying value of long-lived assets that are not expected to be recovered from future cash flows are written down to estimated fair value. We test long-lived assets for impairment when events or circumstances indicate that a long-lived asset’s carrying value may not be recoverable or will no longer be utilized within the operating fleet. The most common circumstance requiring compression units to be evaluated for impairment involves idle units that do not meet the desired performance characteristics of our revenue-generating horsepower.
The carrying value of a long-lived asset is not recoverable if the asset’s carrying value exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows expected to be generated from the use and eventual disposition of the asset. If the carrying value of the long-lived asset exceeds the sum of the undiscounted cash flows associated with the asset, an impairment loss equal to the amount of the carrying value exceeding the fair value of the asset is recognized. The fair value of the asset is measured using quoted market prices or, in the absence of quoted market prices, based on an estimate of discounted cash flows, the expected net sale proceeds compared to the other similarly configured fleet units that we recently sold or a review of other units recently offered for sale by third parties, or the estimated component value of the equipment we plan to continue using.
Refer to Note 5 for more detailed information about impairment charges during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022.
Identifiable Intangible Assets
Identifiable intangible assets are recorded at cost and amortized using the straight-line method over their estimated useful lives, which is the period over which the assets are expected to contribute directly or indirectly to our future cash flows. The estimated useful lives of our intangible assets range from 15 to 25 years.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue is recognized when obligations under the terms of a contract with our customer are satisfied; generally, this occurs with the provision of services or the transfer of goods. Revenue is measured at the amount of consideration we expect to receive
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in exchange for providing services or transferring goods. Incidental items, if any, that are immaterial in the context of the contract are recognized as expenses.
Income Taxes
USA Compression Partners, LP is organized as a partnership for U.S. federal and state income tax purposes. As a result, our partners are responsible for U.S. federal and state income taxes on their distributive share of our items of income, gain, loss, or deduction. Texas also imposes an entity-level income tax on partnerships that is based on Texas-sourced taxable margin (the “Texas Margin Tax”). Texas Margin Tax impacts are included within our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements. Our wholly owned finance subsidiary, USA Compression Finance Corp. (“Finance Corp”), is a corporation for U.S. federal and state income tax purposes and any resulting tax impacts attributable to Finance Corp are included within our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
Pass-Through Taxes
Sales taxes incurred on behalf of, and passed through to, customers are accounted for on a net basis.
Fair-Value Measurements
Accounting standards applicable to fair-value measurements establish a framework for measuring fair value and stipulate disclosures about fair-value measurements. The standards apply to recurring and non-recurring financial and non-financial assets and liabilities that require or permit fair-value measurements. Among the required disclosures is the fair-value hierarchy of inputs we use to value an asset or a liability. The three levels of the fair-value hierarchy are described as follows:
Level 1 inputs are quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities that we have the ability to access at the measurement date.
Level 2 inputs are those other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly.
Level 3 inputs are unobservable inputs for the asset or liability.
As of June 30, 2023, and December 31, 2022, our financial instruments primarily consisted of cash and cash equivalents, trade accounts receivable, trade accounts payable, long-term debt, and, as of June 30, 2023, a derivative instrument. The book values of cash and cash equivalents, trade accounts receivable, and trade accounts payable are representative of fair value due to their short-term maturities. Our revolving credit facility applies floating interest rates to amounts drawn under the facility; therefore, the carrying amount of our revolving credit facility approximates its fair value.
The fair value of our Senior Notes 2026 and Senior Notes 2027 were estimated using quoted prices in inactive markets and are considered Level 2 measurements. The following table summarizes the aggregate principal amount and fair value of our Senior Notes 2026 and Senior Notes 2027 (in thousands):
June 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Senior Notes 2026, aggregate principal$725,000 $725,000 
Fair value of Senior Notes 2026703,250 706,875 
Senior Notes 2027, aggregate principal750,000 750,000 
Fair value of Senior Notes 2027710,625 725,625 
The fair value of our derivative instrument, which is an interest-rate swap, was estimated based on inputs from actively quoted public markets, including interest-rate forward curves, and is considered a Level 2 measurement. The following table summarizes the gross fair value of our interest-rate swap (in thousands):
June 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Interest-rate swap$13,334 $ 
See Note 7 below for additional information on the interest-rate swap.
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Operating Segment
We operate in a single business segment, the compression services business.
(3) Trade Accounts Receivable
The allowance for credit losses, which was $1.2 million at both June 30, 2023, and December 31, 2022, represents our best estimate of the amount of probable credit losses included within our existing accounts receivable balance.
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, we recognized reversals of $0.2 million and $0.7 million, respectively, to our provision for expected credit losses. Favorable market conditions for customers, attributable to sustained increases in commodity prices, was the primary factor supporting the recorded decrease to the allowance for credit losses for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022.
(4)  Inventories
Components of inventories are as follows (in thousands):
June 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Serialized parts$49,914 $46,923 
Non-serialized parts51,505 46,831 
Total inventories$101,419 $93,754 
(5)  Property and Equipment and Identifiable Intangible Assets
Property and Equipment
Property and equipment consisted of the following (in thousands):
June 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Compression and treating equipment$3,753,445 $3,658,000 
Computer equipment31,952 34,941 
Automobiles and vehicles41,244 34,947 
Leasehold improvements9,043 8,997 
Buildings3,464 3,464 
Furniture and fixtures817 795 
Land77 77 
Total property and equipment, gross3,840,042 3,741,221 
Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization(1,652,787)(1,568,297)
Total property and equipment, net$2,187,255 $2,172,924 
Depreciation is calculated using the straight-line method over the estimated useful lives of the assets as follows:
Compression and treating equipment, acquired new25 years
Compression and treating equipment, acquired used
5 - 25 years
Furniture and fixtures
3 - 10 years
Vehicles and computer equipment
1 - 10 years
Buildings
5 years
Leasehold improvements5 years
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Depreciation expense on property and equipment and loss (gain) on disposition of assets were as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
 2023202220232022
Depreciation expense$52,694 $51,614 $104,835 $103,334 
Loss (gain) on disposition of assets309 1,031 (67)852 
On a quarterly basis, we evaluate the future deployment of our idle fleet assets under current market conditions. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, we retired 33 and 39 compression units, respectively, representing approximately 26,900 and 35,600 of aggregate horsepower, respectively, that previously were used to provide compression services in our business. As a result, we recorded impairments of compression equipment of $10.3 million and $11.5 million for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, respectively.
For the six months ended June 30, 2022, we retired 10 compression units representing approximately 1,400 of aggregate horsepower that previously were used to provide compression services in our business. As a result, we recorded an impairment of compression equipment of $0.4 million for the six months ended June 30, 2022. No impairment was recorded for the three months ended June 30, 2022.
The primary circumstances supporting these impairments were: (i) unmarketability of certain compression units into the foreseeable future, (ii) excessive maintenance costs associated with certain fleet assets, and (iii) prohibitive retrofitting costs that likely would prevent certain compression units from securing customer acceptance. These compression units were written down to their estimated salvage values, if any.
Identifiable Intangible Assets
Identifiable intangible assets, net consisted of the following (in thousands):
Customer RelationshipsTrade NamesTotal
Net balance as of December 31, 2022$250,744 $24,288 $275,032 
Amortization expense(13,052)(1,638)(14,690)
Net balance as of June 30, 2023$237,692 $22,650 $260,342 
Accumulated amortization of intangible assets was $290.3 million and $275.6 million as of June 30, 2023, and December 31, 2022, respectively.
(6)  Other Current Liabilities
Components of other current liabilities included the following (in thousands):
June 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Accrued interest expense$32,839 $32,763 
Accrued unit-based compensation liability25,005 17,743 
Accrued capital expenditures11,153 10,028 
(7) Derivative Instrument
In April 2023, we entered into an interest-rate swap to manage interest-rate risk associated with the floating-rate Credit Agreement. The interest-rate swap’s notional principal amount is $700 million and has a mandatory termination date in April 2025. Under the interest-rate swap, we pay a fixed interest rate of 3.785% and receive floating interest rate payments that are indexed to the one-month SOFR.
We do not apply hedge accounting to our currently outstanding derivative. Our derivative is carried on the unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets at fair value and are classified as current or long-term depending on the expected timing of settlement, and gains and losses associated with the derivative instrument is recognized currently in gain on derivative instrument within the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations. Cash flows related to cash settlements for the periods presented are classified as operating activities within the unaudited condensed consolidated statements of cash flows.
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The following table summarizes the location and fair value of our derivative instrument on our unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets (in thousands):
Balance Sheet ClassificationJune 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Derivative instrument$10,294 $ 
Derivative instrument, long term3,040  
The following table summarizes the location and amounts recognized related to our derivative instrument within our unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
Income Statement Classification2023202220232022
Gain on derivative instrument$14,550 $ $14,550 $ 
(8)  Long-term Debt
Our long-term debt, of which there is no current portion, consisted of the following (in thousands):
June 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Senior Notes 2026, aggregate principal$725,000 $725,000 
Senior Notes 2027, aggregate principal750,000 750,000 
Less: deferred financing costs, net of amortization(12,647)(14,307)
Total senior notes, net1,462,353 1,460,693 
Revolving credit facility750,439 645,956 
Total long-term debt, net$2,212,792 $2,106,649 
Revolving Credit Facility
The Credit Agreement matures on December 8, 2026, except that if any portion of the Senior Notes 2026 are outstanding on December 31, 2025, the Credit Agreement will mature on December 31, 2025.
The Credit Agreement has an aggregate commitment of $1.6 billion (subject to availability under our borrowing base). The Partnership’s obligations under the Credit Agreement are guaranteed by the guarantors party to the Credit Agreement, which currently consists of all of the Partnership’s subsidiaries. In addition, under the Credit Agreement the Partnership’s Secured Obligations (as defined therein) are secured by: (i) substantially all of the Partnership’s assets and substantially all of the assets of the guarantors party to the Credit Agreement, excluding real property and other customary exclusions; and (ii) all of the equity interests of the Partnership’s U.S. restricted subsidiaries (subject to customary exceptions).
As of June 30, 2023, we had outstanding borrowings under the Credit Agreement of $750.4 million, $849.6 million of availability and, subject to compliance with the applicable financial covenants, available borrowing capacity of $327.6 million. Our weighted-average interest rate in effect for all borrowings under the Credit Agreement for the six months ended June 30, 2023, was 7.40%, and our weighted-average interest rate under the Credit Agreement as of June 30, 2023, was 7.74%. There were no letters of credit issued under the Credit Agreement as of June 30, 2023. We pay an annualized commitment fee of 0.375% on the unused portion of the aggregate commitment.
The Credit Agreement permits us to make distributions of available cash to unitholders so long as (i) no default under the facility has occurred, is continuing, or would result from the distribution; (ii) immediately prior to and after giving effect to such distribution, we are in compliance with the facility’s financial covenants; and (iii) immediately prior to and after giving effect to such distribution, (a) on or before September 30, 2023, we have availability under the Credit Agreement of at least $250 million and (b) after September 30, 2023, we have availability under the Credit Agreement of at least $100 million.
The Credit Agreement also contains various financial covenants, including covenants requiring us to maintain:
a minimum EBITDA (as defined in the Credit Agreement) interest coverage ratio of 2.5 to 1.0, determined as of the last day of each fiscal quarter, with EBITDA and interest expense annualized for the most-recent fiscal quarter;
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a ratio of total secured indebtedness to EBITDA not greater than 3.0 to 1.0 or less than 0.0 to 1.0, determined as of the last day of each fiscal quarter, with EBITDA annualized for the most-recent fiscal quarter; and
a maximum funded debt-to-EBITDA ratio, determined as of the last day of each fiscal quarter with EBITDA annualized for the most-recent fiscal quarter, of (i) 5.50 to 1.00 through the third quarter of 2023 and (ii) 5.25 to 1.00 thereafter. In addition, the Partnership may increase the applicable ratio by 0.25 for any fiscal quarter during which a Specified Acquisition (as defined in the Credit Agreement) occurs and for the following two fiscal quarters, but in no event shall the maximum ratio exceed 5.50 to 1.00 for any fiscal quarter as a result of such increase.
As of June 30, 2023, we were in compliance with all of our covenants under the Credit Agreement.
The Credit Agreement is a “revolving credit facility” that includes a lockbox arrangement, whereby remittances from customers are forwarded to a bank account controlled by the administrative agent and are applied to reduce borrowings under the facility.
Senior Notes 2026
On March 23, 2018, the Partnership and Finance Corp co-issued the Senior Notes 2026. The Senior Notes 2026 mature on April 1, 2026, and accrue interest at the rate of 6.875% per year. Interest on the Senior Notes 2026 is payable semi-annually in arrears on each of April 1 and October 1.
The indenture governing the Senior Notes 2026 (the “2026 Indenture”) contains certain financial covenants that we must comply with in order to make certain restricted payments as described in the 2026 Indenture. As of June 30, 2023, we were in compliance with such financial covenants under the 2026 Indenture.
The Senior Notes 2026 are fully and unconditionally guaranteed (the “2026 Guarantees”), jointly and severally, on a senior unsecured basis by all of our existing subsidiaries (other than Finance Corp), and will be fully and unconditionally guaranteed, jointly and severally, by each of our future restricted subsidiaries that either borrows under, or guarantees, the Credit Agreement or guarantees certain of our other indebtedness (collectively, the “Guarantors”). The Senior Notes 2026 and the 2026 Guarantees are general unsecured obligations and rank equally in right of payment with all of the Guarantors’, Finance Corp’s, and our existing and future senior indebtedness and senior to the Guarantors’, Finance Corp’s, and our future subordinated indebtedness, if any. The Senior Notes 2026 and the 2026 Guarantees effectively are subordinated in right of payment to all of the Guarantors’, Finance Corp’s, and our existing and future secured debt, including debt under the Credit Agreement and guarantees thereof, to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt, and are structurally subordinate to all indebtedness of any of our subsidiaries that do not guarantee the Senior Notes 2026.
Senior Notes 2027
On March 7, 2019, the Partnership and Finance Corp co-issued the Senior Notes 2027. The Senior Notes 2027 mature on September 1, 2027, and accrue interest at the rate of 6.875% per year. Interest on the Senior Notes 2027 is payable semi-annually in arrears on each of March 1 and September 1.
The indenture governing the Senior Notes 2027 (the “2027 Indenture”) contains certain financial covenants that we must comply with in order to make certain restricted payments as described in the 2027 Indenture. As of June 30, 2023, we were in compliance with such financial covenants under the 2027 Indenture.
The Senior Notes 2027 are fully and unconditionally guaranteed (the “2027 Guarantees”), jointly and severally, on a senior unsecured basis by the Guarantors. The Senior Notes 2027 and the 2027 Guarantees are general unsecured obligations and rank equally in right of payment with all of the Guarantors’, Finance Corp’s, and our existing and future senior indebtedness and senior to the Guarantors’, Finance Corp’s, and our future subordinated indebtedness, if any. The Senior Notes 2027 and the 2027 Guarantees effectively are subordinated in right of payment to all of the Guarantors’, Finance Corp’s, and our existing and future secured debt, including debt under the Credit Agreement and guarantees thereof, to the extent of the value of the assets securing such debt, and are structurally subordinate to all indebtedness of any of our subsidiaries that do not guarantee the Senior Notes 2027.
We have no assets or operations independent of our subsidiaries, and there are no significant restrictions on our ability to obtain funds from our subsidiaries by dividend or loan. Each of the Guarantors is 100% owned by us. None of the assets of our subsidiaries represent restricted net assets pursuant to Rule 4-08(e)(3) of Regulation S-X under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.
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(9)  Preferred Units
We had 500,000 Preferred Units outstanding as of June 30, 2023, and December 31, 2022, respectively, with a face value of $1,000 per Preferred Unit.
The Preferred Units rank senior to our common units with respect to distributions and liquidation rights. The holders of the Preferred Units are entitled to receive cumulative quarterly cash distributions equal to $24.375 per Preferred Unit.
We have declared and paid per-unit quarterly cash distributions to the holders of the Preferred Units of record as follows:
Payment DateDistribution per Preferred Unit
February 4, 2022$24.375 
May 6, 202224.375 
August 5, 202224.375 
November 4, 202224.375 
Total 2022 distributions
$97.50 
February 3, 2023$24.375 
May 5, 202324.375 
Total 2023 distributions
$48.75 
Announced Quarterly Distribution
On July 13, 2023, we declared a cash distribution of $24.375 per unit on our Preferred Units. The distribution will be paid on August 4, 2023, to the holders of the Preferred Units of record as of the close of business on July 24, 2023.
Changes in the Preferred Units’ balance are as follows (in thousands):
Preferred Units
Balance as of December 31, 2022$477,309 
Net income allocated to Preferred Units24,375 
Cash distributions on Preferred Units(24,375)
Balance as of June 30, 2023$477,309 
Redemption and Conversion Features
As of April 2, 2023, 100% of the Preferred Units are convertible, at the option of the holder, into common units in accordance with the terms of our Second Amended and Restated Agreement of Limited Partnership (the “Partnership Agreement”). The conversion rate for the Preferred Units is the quotient of (i) the sum of (a) $1,000, plus (b) any unpaid cash distributions on the applicable Preferred Unit, divided by (ii) $20.0115 for each Preferred Unit.
As of April 2, 2023, we have the option to redeem all or any portion of the Preferred Units then outstanding, subject to certain minimum redemption threshold amounts, for a redemption price set forth in the Partnership Agreement. On or after April 2, 2028, each holder of the Preferred Units will have the right to require us to redeem all or a portion of their Preferred Units, subject to certain minimum redemption threshold amounts, for a redemption price set forth in the Partnership Agreement, which we may elect to pay up to 50% in common units, subject to certain additional limits.
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(10) Partners’ Deficit
Common Units
The change in common units outstanding was as follows:
 Common Units Outstanding
Number of common units outstanding, December 31, 202298,227,656 
Issuance of common units under the DRIP50,800 
Number of common units outstanding, June 30, 202398,278,456 
As of June 30, 2023, Energy Transfer held 46,056,228 common units, including 8,000,000 common units held by the General Partner and controlled by Energy Transfer.
Cash Distributions
We have declared and paid per-unit quarterly distributions to our limited partner unitholders of record, including holders of our common and phantom units, as follows (dollars in millions, except distribution per unit):
Payment DateDistribution per Limited Partner UnitAmount Paid to Common UnitholdersAmount Paid to Phantom UnitholdersTotal Distribution
February 4, 2022$0.525 $51.1 $1.2 $52.3 
May 6, 20220.525 51.1 1.2 52.3 
August 5, 20220.525 51.4 1.1 52.5 
November 4, 20220.525 51.5 1.0 52.5 
Total 2022 distributions
$2.10 $205.1 $4.5 $209.6 
February 3, 2023$0.525 $51.6 $1.1 $52.7 
May 5, 20230.525 51.6 1.1 52.7 
Total 2023 distributions
$1.05 $103.2 $2.2 $105.4 
Announced Quarterly Distribution
On July 13, 2023, we announced a cash distribution of $0.525 per unit on our common units. The distribution will be paid on August 4, 2023, to common unitholders of record as of the close of business on July 24, 2023.
DRIP
During the six months ended June 30, 2023, distributions of $1.0 million were reinvested under the DRIP resulting in the issuance of 50,800 common units.
Warrants
As of June 30, 2023, and December 31, 2022, we had warrants outstanding to purchase 10,000,000 common units with a strike price of $19.59 per common unit that may be exercised by the holders at any time prior to April 2, 2028.
On April 27, 2022, a tranche of warrants with the right to purchase 5,000,000 common units with a strike price of $17.03 per common unit was exercised in full by the holders. The exercise of the warrants was net settled by the Partnership for 534,308 common units.
Income (Loss) Per Unit
The computation of income (loss) per unit is based on the weighted-average number of participating securities, which includes our common units and certain equity-based awards outstanding during the applicable period. Basic income (loss) per unit is determined by dividing net income (loss) allocated to participating securities after deducting the amount distributed on Preferred Units, by the weighted-average number of participating securities outstanding during the period. Income (loss) attributable to unitholders is allocated to participating securities based on their respective shares of the distributed and
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undistributed earnings for the period. To the extent cash distributions exceed net income (loss) attributable to unitholders for the period, the excess distributions are allocated to all participating securities outstanding based on their respective ownership percentages.
Diluted income (loss) per unit is computed using the treasury stock method, which considers the potential issuance of limited partner units associated with our long-term incentive plan and warrants. Unvested phantom units and unexercised warrants are not included in basic income (loss) per unit, as they are not considered to be participating securities, but are included in the calculation of diluted income (loss) per unit to the extent they are dilutive, and in the case of warrants to the extent they are considered “in the money.”
For the three months ended June 30, 2023, approximately 1,177,000 and 246,000 incremental unvested phantom units and “in the money” outstanding warrants, respectively, represent the difference between our basic and diluted weighted-average common units outstanding. For the six months ended June 30, 2023, approximately 1,118,000 and 361,000 incremental unvested phantom units and “in the money” outstanding warrants, respectively, represent the difference between our basic and diluted weighted-average common units outstanding.
For the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, approximately 1,051,000 and 928,000 incremental unvested phantom units, respectively, were excluded from the calculation of diluted income (loss) per unit because the impact was anti-dilutive. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, approximately 157,000 and 85,000 incremental “in the money” then-outstanding warrants, respectively, were excluded from the calculation of diluted income (loss) per unit because the impact was anti-dilutive. Our outstanding warrants not “in the money” were excluded from the calculation for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022.
(11) Revenue Recognition
Disaggregation of Revenue
The following table disaggregates our revenue by type of service (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Contract operations revenue$202,403 $167,853 $395,545 $329,339 
Retail parts and services revenue4,517 3,608 8,499 5,534 
Total revenues$206,920 $171,461 $404,044 $334,873 
The following table disaggregates our revenue by timing of provision of services or transfer of goods (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Services provided over time:
Primary term$156,744 $118,248 $305,470 $226,545 
Month-to-month45,659 49,605 90,075 102,794 
Total services provided over time202,403 167,853 395,545 329,339 
Services provided or goods transferred at a point in time4,517 3,608 8,499 5,534 
Total revenues$206,920 $171,461 $404,044 $334,873 
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Deferred Revenue
We record deferred revenue when cash payments are received or due in advance of our performance. Components of deferred revenue were as follows (in thousands):
Balance sheet locationJune 30,
2023
December 31,
2022
Current (1)Deferred revenue$62,981 $62,345 
NoncurrentOther liabilities1,303 2,789 
Total$64,284 $65,134 
________________________________
(1)We recognized $3.9 million and $56.9 million of revenue during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, respectively, related to our deferred revenue balance as of December 31, 2022.
Performance Obligations
As of June 30, 2023, the aggregate amount of transaction price allocated to unsatisfied performance obligations related to our contract operations revenue was $814.4 million. We expect to recognize these remaining performance obligations as follows (in thousands):
2023 (remainder)
202420252026ThereafterTotal
Remaining performance obligations$267,744 $314,250 $115,079 $70,762 $46,587 $814,422 
(12) Transactions with Related Parties
We provide natural gas compression and treating services to entities affiliated with Energy Transfer, which as of June 30, 2023, owned approximately 47% of our limited partner interests and 100% of the General Partner.
Revenue recognized from those entities affiliated with Energy Transfer on our unaudited condensed consolidated statements of operations were as follows (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
 2023202220232022
Related-party revenues$5,836 $3,887 $10,543 $7,705 
We had approximately $2.9 million and $52 thousand of related-party receivables on our unaudited condensed consolidated balance sheets as of June 30, 2023, and December 31, 2022, respectively, from those entities affiliated with Energy Transfer.
(13) Commitments and Contingencies
(a)Major Customers
One customer accounted for approximately 10% of total revenues for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023. No customer accounted for 10% or more of total revenues for the three and six months ended June 30, 2022.
(b)Litigation
From time to time, we and our subsidiaries may be involved in various claims and litigation arising in the ordinary course of business. In management’s opinion, the resolution of such matters is not expected to have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
(c)Equipment Purchase Commitments
Our future capital commitments are comprised of binding commitments under purchase orders for new compression units ordered but not received. The commitments as of June 30, 2023, were $121.4 million, all of which is expected to be settled within the next twelve months and $95.7 million of which is expected to be settled by year-end 2023.
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(d)Tax Contingencies
Our compliance with state and local sales tax regulations is subject to audit by various taxing authorities. Certain taxing authorities have either claimed or issued an assessment that specific operational processes, which we and others in our industry regularly conduct, result in transactions that are subject to state sales taxes. We and others in our industry have disputed these claims and assessments based on either existing tax statutes or published guidance by the taxing authorities.
We currently are protesting certain assessments made by the Oklahoma Tax Commission (“OTC”). We believe it is reasonably possible that we could incur losses related to this assessment depending on whether the administrative law judge assigned by the OTC accepts our position that the transactions are not taxable and we ultimately lose any and all subsequent legal challenges to such determination. We estimate that the range of losses we could incur is from $0 to approximately $26.0 million, including penalties and interest.
Our U.S. federal income tax returns for the 2019 and 2020 tax years currently are under examination by the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”). The IRS has issued preliminary partnership examination changes, along with imputed underpayment computations, for the 2019 and 2020 tax years. Under the Bipartisan Budget Act, there are several procedural steps, including an appeals process, to complete before a final imputed underpayment, if any, is determined. Based on to-date discussions with the IRS, we estimate a potential range of loss from a final imputed underpayment of $0 to approximately $25 million, including interest, for potential adjustments resulting from the IRS examination. Once a final partnership imputed underpayment, if any, is determined, our General Partner may either elect to pay the imputed underpayment (including any applicable penalties and interest) directly to the IRS or, if eligible, issue a revised information statement to each unitholder, and former unitholder, with respect to an audited and adjusted return.
(e)Environmental
Our operations are subject to federal, state, and local laws, rules, and regulations regarding water quality, hazardous and solid waste management, air quality control, and other environmental matters. These laws, rules, and regulations require that we conduct our operations in a specified manner and to obtain and comply with a wide variety of environmental registrations, licenses, permits, inspections, and other approvals. Failure to comply with applicable environmental laws, rules, and regulations may expose us to significant fines, penalties, and/or interruptions in operations. Our environmental policies and procedures are designed to achieve compliance with such applicable laws, rules, and regulations. These evolving laws, rules, and regulations, and claims for damages to property, employees, other persons, and the environment resulting from current or past operations may result in significant expenditures and liabilities in the future.
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ITEM 2.    Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations
USA Compression Partners, LP (the “Partnership”) is a Delaware limited partnership that operates as one of the nation’s largest independent providers of natural gas compression services in terms of total compression fleet horsepower. We are managed by our general partner, USA Compression GP, LLC (the “General Partner”), which is wholly owned by Energy Transfer. All references in this section to the Partnership, as well as the terms “our,” “we,” “us,” and “its” refer to USA Compression Partners, LP, together with its consolidated subsidiaries, unless the context otherwise requires or where otherwise indicated.
DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This report contains “forward-looking statements.” All statements other than statements of historical fact contained in this report are forward-looking statements, including, without limitation, statements regarding our plans, strategies, prospects, and expectations concerning our business, results of operations, and financial condition. Many of these statements can be identified by words such as “believe,” “expect,” “intend,” “project,” “anticipate,” “estimate,” “continue,” “if,” “outlook,” “will,” “could,” “should,” or similar words or the negatives thereof.
Known material factors that could cause our actual results to differ from those represented within these forward-looking statements are described in Part I, Item 1A “Risk Factors” of our annual report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, filed on February 14, 2023 (our “2022 Annual Report”), in Part II, Item 1A “Risk Factors” in our Quarterly Report for the quarter ended March 31, 2023, as well as our subsequent filings with the SEC. Important factors that could cause our actual results to differ materially from the expectations reflected in these forward-looking statements include, among other things:
changes in general economic conditions, including inflation or supply chain disruptions and changes in economic conditions of the crude oil and natural gas industries, including any impact from the ongoing military conflict involving Russia and Ukraine;
changes in the long-term supply of and demand for crude oil and natural gas, including as a result of the severity and duration of world health events, related economic repercussions, actions taken by governmental authorities and other third parties in response to such events, and the resulting disruption in the oil and gas industry and impact on demand for oil and gas;
competitive conditions in our industry, including competition for employees in a tight labor market;
changes in the availability and cost of capital, including changes to interest rates;
renegotiation of material terms of customer contracts;
actions taken by our customers, competitors, and third-party operators;
operating hazards, natural disasters, epidemics, pandemics, weather-related impacts, casualty losses, and other matters beyond our control;
the deterioration of the financial condition of our customers, which may result in the initiation of bankruptcy proceedings with respect to certain customers;
the restrictions on our business that are imposed under our long-term debt agreements;
information technology risks including the risk from cyberattacks, cybersecurity breaches, and other disruptions to our information systems;
the effects of existing and future laws and governmental regulations;
the effects of future litigation; and
our ability to realize the anticipated benefits of acquisitions.
New factors emerge from time to time, and it is not possible for us to predict or anticipate all factors that could affect results reflected in the forward-looking statements contained herein. Should one or more of the risks or uncertainties described in this Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q occur, or should underlying assumptions prove incorrect, actual results and plans could differ materially from those expressed in any forward-looking statements.
All forward-looking statements included in this report are based on information available to us as of the date of this report and speak only as of the date of this report. Except as required by law, we undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events, or otherwise. All subsequent written and
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oral forward-looking statements attributable to us or persons acting on our behalf are expressly qualified in their entirety by the foregoing cautionary statements.
Operating Highlights
The following table summarizes certain horsepower and horsepower-utilization percentages for the periods presented and excludes certain gas-treating assets for which horsepower is not a relevant metric.
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
20232022Increase20232022Increase
Fleet horsepower (at period end) (1)3,716,177 3,695,955 0.5 %3,716,177 3,695,955 0.5 %
Total available horsepower (at period end) (2)3,836,177 3,749,145 2.3 %3,836,177 3,749,145 2.3 %
Revenue-generating horsepower (at period end) (3)3,346,657 3,048,498 9.8 %3,346,657 3,048,498 9.8 %
Average revenue-generating horsepower (4)3,309,758 3,027,886 9.3 %3,275,527 3,003,154 9.1 %
Average revenue per revenue-generating horsepower per month (5)
$18.65 $17.20 8.4 %$18.42 $17.03 8.2 %
Revenue-generating compression units (at period end)4,220 4,014 5.1 %4,220 4,014 5.1 %
Average horsepower per revenue-generating compression unit (6)
787 759 3.7 %784 757 3.6 %
Horsepower utilization (7):
At period end93.7 %88.4 %5.3 %93.7 %88.4 %5.3 %
Average for the period (8)93.4 %87.9 %5.5 %93.0 %86.4 %6.6 %
________________________________
(1)Fleet horsepower is horsepower for compression units that have been delivered to us (and excludes units on order). As of June 30, 2023, we had 120,000 large horsepower on order for delivery, all of which is expected to be delivered within the next twelve months and 95,000 large horsepower of which is expected to be delivered by year-end 2023.
(2)Total available horsepower is revenue-generating horsepower under contract for which we are billing a customer, horsepower in our fleet that is under contract but is not yet generating revenue, horsepower not yet in our fleet that is under contract but not yet generating revenue and that is subject to a purchase order, and idle horsepower. Total available horsepower excludes new horsepower on order for which we do not have an executed compression services contract.
(3)Revenue-generating horsepower is horsepower under contract for which we are billing a customer.
(4)Calculated as the average of the month-end revenue-generating horsepower for each of the months in the period.
(5)Calculated as the average of the result of dividing the contractual monthly rate, excluding standby or other temporary rates, for all units at the end of each month in the period by the sum of the revenue-generating horsepower at the end of each month in the period.
(6)Calculated as the average of the month-end revenue-generating horsepower per revenue-generating compression unit for each of the months in the period.
(7)Horsepower utilization is calculated as (i) the sum of (a) revenue-generating horsepower, (b) horsepower in our fleet that is under contract but is not yet generating revenue, and (c) horsepower not yet in our fleet that is under contract but not yet generating revenue and that is subject to a purchase order, divided by (ii) total available horsepower less idle horsepower that is under repair. Horsepower utilization based on revenue-generating horsepower and fleet horsepower as of June 30, 2023, and 2022, was 90.1% and 82.5%, respectively.
(8)Calculated as the average utilization for the months in the period based on utilization at the end of each month in the period. Average horsepower utilization based on revenue-generating horsepower and fleet horsepower for the three months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, was 89.0% and 82.1%, respectively. Average horsepower utilization based on revenue-generating horsepower and fleet horsepower for the six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, was 88.1% and 81.4%, respectively.
The 2.3% increase in total available horsepower as of June 30, 2023, compared to June 30, 2022, primarily was due to new compression units added to our fleet to meet incremental demand from customers for our compression services, partially offset by compression units impaired since the previous period.
The 9.8% increase in revenue-generating horsepower and 5.1% increase in revenue-generating compression units as of June 30, 2023, compared to June 30, 2022, primarily were driven by both the redeployment of, and addition of new, larger-horsepower compression units due to increased demand for our services commensurate with increased production levels in the basins in which we operate.
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The 8.4% and 8.2% increases in average revenue per revenue-generating horsepower per month for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, primarily were due to higher market-based rates on newly deployed and redeployed compression units, and CPI-based and other market-based price increases on existing customer contracts that occur as market conditions permit.
The 3.7% and 3.6% increases in average horsepower per revenue-generating compression unit during the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, were due to both the redeployment of, and addition of new, larger-horsepower compression units.
Horsepower utilization increased to 93.7% as of June 30, 2023, compared to 88.4% as of June 30, 2022. The increase primarily was due to an increase in revenue-generating horsepower, which was driven by a combination of the redeployment of certain previously idle compression units as well as the deployment of new compression units added to the fleet. The increase in horsepower utilization resulted from increased demand for our services, consistent with increased production levels in the basins in which we operate. The above-stated factors also drove the increase in average horsepower utilization for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, as compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2022.
Horsepower utilization based on revenue-generating horsepower and fleet horsepower increased to 90.1% as of June 30, 2023, compared to 82.5% as of June 30, 2022. The increase in horsepower utilization based on revenue-generating horsepower and fleet horsepower primarily was driven by the redeployment of certain previously idle compression units as well as the deployment of new compression units added to the fleet. The increase in horsepower utilization based on revenue-generating horsepower and fleet horsepower resulted from increased demand for our services, consistent with increased production levels in the basins in which we operate. The above-stated factors also drove the increase in average horsepower utilization based on revenue-generating horsepower and fleet horsepower for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, as compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2022.

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Financial Results of Operations
Three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the periods presented (dollars in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Increase
20232022(Decrease)
Revenues:
Contract operations$196,982 $163,969 20.1 %
Parts and service4,102 3,605 13.8 %
Related party5,836 3,887 50.1 %
Total revenues206,920 171,461 20.7 %
Costs and expenses:
Cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization69,922 55,158 26.8 %
Depreciation and amortization60,039 58,959 1.8 %
Selling, general, and administrative14,950 13,914 7.4 %
Gain on disposition of assets309 1,031       *
Impairment of compression equipment10,273 —       *
Total costs and expenses155,493 129,062 20.5 %
Operating income51,427 42,399 21.3 %
Other income (expense):
Interest expense, net(42,045)(33,079)27.1 %
Gain on derivative instrument14,550 —       *
Other57 21 171.4 %
Total other expense(27,438)(33,058)(17.0)%
Net income before income tax expense23,989 9,341 156.8 %
Income tax expense405 255 58.8 %
Net income$23,584 $9,086 159.6 %
________________________________
*Not meaningful
Contract operations revenue. The $33.0 million increase in contract operations revenue for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to (i) a 9.3% increase in average revenue-generating horsepower as a result of increased demand for our services, consistent with increased production levels in the basins in which we operate, (ii) an 8.4% increase in average revenue per revenue-generating horsepower per month, as a result of higher market-based rates on newly deployed and redeployed compression units, and CPI-based and other market-based price increases on existing customer contracts that occur as market conditions permit, and (iii) a $7.2 million increase in revenues attributable to natural gas compression station services and natural gas treating services.
Additionally, average revenue per revenue-generating horsepower per month associated with our compression services provided on a month-to-month basis did not differ significantly from the average revenue per revenue-generating horsepower per month associated with our compression services provided under contracts in their primary term during the period.
Parts and service revenue. The $0.5 million increase in parts and service revenue for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to an increase in maintenance work performed on units at customer locations that are outside the scope of our core maintenance activities and that are offered as a convenience, and in directly reimbursable freight and crane charges that are the financial responsibility of the customers. Demand for retail parts and services fluctuates from period to period based on varying customer needs.
Related-party revenue. Related-party revenue was earned through related-party transactions that occur in the ordinary course of business with various affiliated entities of Energy Transfer. The $1.9 million increase in related-party revenue for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to (i) an increase in revenues attributable to natural gas treating services driven by increased demand for these services from these entities, (ii)
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increased average revenue-generating horsepower under contract with these entities, and (iii) increased average revenue per revenue-generating horsepower per month, consistent with the overall increase to our contract operations revenue.
Cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization. The $14.8 million increase in cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to (i) an $8.2 million increase in direct expenses, primarily driven by fluids and parts due to higher costs and increased usage associated with increased revenue-generating horsepower, (ii) a $3.0 million increase in direct labor costs due to increased headcount associated with increased revenue-generating horsepower and higher employee costs, (iii) a $1.5 million increase in outside maintenance costs due to greater use and higher costs of third-party labor during the current period, and (iv) a $1.0 million increase in retail parts and service expenses, for which a corresponding increase in parts and service revenue also occurred.
Depreciation and amortization expense. The $1.1 million increase in depreciation and amortization expense for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to compression unit overhauls and new compression units placed in service to meet incremental demand from customers.
Selling, general, and administrative expense. The $1.0 million increase in selling, general, and administrative expense for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to an increase in employee-related expenses driven by increased headcount and higher employee costs.
Impairment of compression equipment. The $10.3 million impairment of compression equipment for the three months ended June 30, 2023, primarily was the result of our evaluation of the future deployment of our idle fleet under then-existing market conditions. The primary circumstances supporting these impairments were: (i) unmarketability of certain compression units into the foreseeable future, (ii) excessive maintenance costs associated with certain fleet assets, and (iii) prohibitive retrofitting costs that likely would prevent certain compression units from securing customer acceptance. These compression units were written down to their estimated salvage values, if any.
As a result of our evaluation during the three months ended June 30, 2023, we retired 33 compression units, representing approximately 26,900 of aggregate horsepower, that previously were used to provide compression services in our business.
No impairment was recorded for the three months ended June 30, 2022.
Interest expense, net. The $9.0 million increase in interest expense, net for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to increased borrowings and higher weighted-average interest rates under the Credit Agreement.
Average outstanding borrowings under the Credit Agreement were $745.1 million for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to $566.8 million for the three months ended June 30, 2022, and the weighted-average interest rate applicable to borrowings under the Credit Agreement was 7.63% and 3.59% for the three months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, respectively.
Gain on derivative instrument. In April 2023, we entered into an interest-rate swap in which we pay a fixed interest rate and receive floating interest rate payments that are indexed to the one-month SOFR. The $14.6 million gain on derivative instrument for the three months ended June 30, 2023, resulted from the increase in fair value of the interest-rate swap due to an increase in the interest-rate forward curve during the current period. We had no derivative instruments outstanding for the three months ended June 30, 2022.
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Six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the periods presented (dollars in thousands):
Six Months Ended June 30,
 20232022Increase
Revenues:
Contract operations$385,521 $321,637 19.9 %
Parts and service7,980 5,531 44.3 %
Related party10,543 7,705 36.8 %
Total revenues404,044 334,873 20.7 %
Costs and expenses:
Cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization136,587 108,890 25.4 %
Depreciation and amortization119,525 118,023 1.3 %
Selling, general, and administrative34,051 29,179 16.7 %
Loss (gain) on disposition of assets(67)852           *
Impairment of compression equipment11,464 432           *
Total costs and expenses301,560 257,376 17.2 %
Operating income102,484 77,497 32.2 %
Other income (expense):
Interest expense, net(81,835)(64,917)26.1 %
Gain on derivative instrument14,550 —           *
Other81 41 97.6 %
Total other expense(67,204)(64,876)3.6 %
Net income before income tax expense35,280 12,621 179.5 %
Income tax expense755 281 168.7 %
Net income$34,525 $12,340 179.8 %
________________________________
*Not meaningful
Contract operations revenue. The $63.9 million increase in contract operations revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to (i) a 9.1% increase in average revenue-generating horsepower as a result of increased demand for our services, consistent with increased production levels in the basins in which we operate, (ii) an 8.2% increase in average revenue per revenue-generating horsepower per month, as a result of higher market-based rates on newly deployed and redeployed compression units, and CPI-based and other market-based price increases on existing customer contracts that occur as market conditions permit, and (iii) a $13.4 million increase in revenues attributable to natural gas compression station services and natural gas treating services.
Additionally, average revenue per revenue-generating horsepower per month associated with our compression services provided on a month-to-month basis did not differ significantly from the average revenue per revenue-generating horsepower per month associated with our compression services provided under contracts in their primary term during the period.
Parts and service revenue. The $2.4 million increase in parts and service revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to an increase in maintenance work performed on units at customer locations that are outside the scope of our core maintenance activities and that are offered as a convenience, and in directly reimbursable freight and crane charges that are the financial responsibility of the customers. Demand for retail parts and services fluctuates from period to period based on varying customer needs.
Related-party revenue. Related-party revenue was earned through related-party transactions that occur in the ordinary course of business with various affiliated entities of Energy Transfer. The $2.8 million increase in related-party revenue for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to (i) an increase in revenues attributable to natural gas treating services driven by increased demand for these services from these entities, (ii) increased average revenue-generating horsepower under contract with these entities, and (iii) increased average revenue per revenue-generating horsepower per month, consistent with the overall increase to our contract operations revenue.
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Cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization. The $27.7 million increase in cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to (i) a $15.6 million increase in direct expenses, primarily driven by fluids and parts due to higher costs and increased usage associated with increased revenue-generating horsepower, (ii) a $5.2 million increase in direct labor costs due to increased headcount associated with increased revenue-generating horsepower and higher employee costs, (iii) a $3.2 million increase in outside maintenance costs due to greater use and higher costs of third-party labor during the current period, and (iv) a $2.0 million increase in retail parts and service expenses, for which a corresponding increase in parts and service revenue also occurred.
Depreciation and amortization expense. The $1.5 million increase in depreciation and amortization expense for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to compression unit overhauls and new compression units placed in service to meet incremental demand from customers.
Selling, general, and administrative expense. The $4.9 million increase in selling, general, and administrative expense for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to (i) a $2.9 million increase in unit-based compensation expense, attributable to mark-to-market changes to our unit-based compensation liability that occurred as a result of changes to our per-unit trading price as of June 30, 2023, (ii) a $1.1 million increase in employee-related expenses driven by increased headcount and higher employee costs, and (iii) a $0.7 million reversal of previously recognized credit losses in the prior comparable period.
Impairment of compression equipment. The $11.5 million and $0.4 million impairments of compression equipment for the six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, respectively, primarily resulted from our evaluation of the future deployment of idle fleet assets under then-existing market conditions. The primary circumstances supporting these impairments were: (i) unmarketability of certain compression units into the foreseeable future, (ii) excessive maintenance costs associated with certain fleet assets, and (iii) prohibitive retrofitting costs that likely would prevent certain compression units from securing customer acceptance. These compression units were written down to their estimated salvage values, if any.
As a result of our evaluations during the six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, we retired 39 and 10 compression units, respectively, with approximately 35,600 and 1,400 aggregate horsepower, respectively, that previously were used to provide compression services in our business.
Interest expense, net. The $16.9 million increase in interest expense, net for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to higher weighted-average interest rates and increased borrowings under the Credit Agreement.
The weighted-average interest rate applicable to borrowings under the Credit Agreement was 7.40% and 3.21% for the six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, respectively, and average outstanding borrowings under the Credit Agreement were $707.7 million and $553.5 million for the six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, respectively.
Gain on derivative instrument. In April 2023, we entered into an interest-rate swap in which we pay a fixed interest rate and receive floating interest rate payments that are indexed to the one-month SOFR. The $14.6 million gain on derivative instrument for the six months ended June 30, 2023, resulted from the increase in fair value of the interest-rate swap due to an increase in the interest-rate forward curve during the current period. We had no derivative instruments outstanding for the six months ended June 30, 2022.
Income tax expense. The $0.5 million increase in income tax expense for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was related to taxes associated with the Texas Margin Tax.
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Other Financial Data
The following table summarizes other financial data for the periods presented (dollars in thousands):
Other Financial Data: (1)Three Months Ended
June 30,
IncreaseSix Months Ended
June 30,
Increase
20232022(Decrease)20232022(Decrease)
Gross margin$76,959 $57,344 34.2 %$147,932 $107,960 37.0 %
Adjusted gross margin$136,998 $116,303 17.8 %$267,457 $225,983 18.4 %
Adjusted gross margin percentage (2)66.2 %67.8 %(1.6)%66.2 %67.5 %(1.3)%
Adjusted EBITDA$124,998 $105,408 18.6 %$243,159 $203,831 19.3 %
Adjusted EBITDA percentage (2)60.4 %61.5 %(1.1)%60.2 %60.9 %(0.7)%
DCF$67,038 $55,576 20.6 %$129,651 $105,722 22.6 %
DCF Coverage Ratio1.30 x1.08 x20.4 %1.26 x1.03 x22.3 %
________________________________
(1)Adjusted gross margin, Adjusted EBITDA, Distributable Cash Flow (“DCF”), and DCF Coverage Ratio are all non-GAAP financial measures. Definitions of each measure, as well as reconciliations of each measure to its most directly comparable financial measure(s) calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP, can be found below under the caption “Non-GAAP Financial Measures”.
(2)Adjusted gross margin percentage and Adjusted EBITDA percentage are calculated as a percentage of revenue.
Gross margin. The $19.6 million increase in gross margin for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022, was due to (i) a $35.5 million increase in revenues, partially offset by (ii) a $14.8 million increase in cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, and (iii) a $1.1 million increase in depreciation and amortization.
The $40.0 million increase in gross margin for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, was due to (i) a $69.2 million increase in revenues, partially offset by (ii) a $27.7 million increase in cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, and (iii) a $1.5 million increase in depreciation and amortization.
Adjusted gross margin and Adjusted gross margin percentage. The $20.7 million increase in Adjusted gross margin for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022, was due to a $35.5 million increase in revenues, partially offset by a $14.8 million increase in cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization.
The $41.5 million increase in Adjusted gross margin for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, was due to a $69.2 million increase in revenues, offset by a $27.7 million increase in cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization.
The 1.6% and 1.3% decreases in Adjusted gross margin percentage for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, primarily were due to the inflation-driven increase in cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, that preceded related CPI-based and other market-based price increases on customer contracts that occur as market conditions permit.
Adjusted EBITDA and Adjusted EBITDA percentage. The $19.6 million increase in Adjusted EBITDA for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to a $20.7 million increase in Adjusted gross margin, partially offset by a $1.2 million increase in selling, general, and administrative expenses, excluding unit-based compensation expense and severance charges.
The $39.3 million increase in Adjusted EBITDA for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to a $41.5 million increase in Adjusted gross margin, partially offset by a $2.2 million increase in selling, general and administrative expenses, excluding unit-based compensation expense, severance charges, and transaction expenses.
The 1.1% and 0.7% decreases in Adjusted EBITDA percentage for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, respectively, primarily were due to the inflation-driven increase in cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization, that preceded related CPI-based and other market-based price increases on customer contracts that occur as market conditions permit.
DCF. The $11.5 million increase in DCF for the three months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to (i) a $20.7 million increase in Adjusted gross margin and (ii) a $1.2 million increase in cash
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received on derivative instrument, partially offset by (iii) a $9.0 million increase in cash interest expense, net and (iv) a $1.2 million increase in selling, general, and administrative expenses, excluding unit-based compensation expense and severance charges.
The $23.9 million increase in DCF for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to (i) a $41.5 million increase in Adjusted gross margin and (ii) a $1.2 million increase in cash received on derivative instrument, partially offset by (iii) a $16.9 million increase in cash interest expense, net and (iv) a $2.2 million increase in selling, general and administrative expenses, excluding unit-based compensation expense, severance charges, and transaction expenses.
DCF Coverage Ratio. The increase in DCF Coverage Ratio for the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, was due to the increase in DCF, partially offset by increased distributions due to an increase in the number of outstanding common units.
Liquidity and Capital Resources
Overview
We operate in a capital-intensive industry, and our primary liquidity needs include financing the purchase of additional compression units, making other capital expenditures, servicing our debt, funding working capital, and paying cash distributions on our outstanding preferred and common equity. Our principal sources of liquidity include cash generated by operating activities, borrowings under the Credit Agreement, and issuances of debt and equity securities, including common units under the DRIP.
We believe cash generated by operating activities and, where necessary, borrowings under the Credit Agreement will be sufficient to service our debt, fund working capital, fund our estimated expansion capital expenditures, fund our maintenance capital expenditures, and pay distributions to our unitholders for the next 12 months.
Because we distribute all of our available cash, which excludes prudent operating reserves, we expect to fund any future expansion capital expenditures or acquisitions primarily with capital from external financing sources, such as borrowings under the Credit Agreement and issuances of debt and equity securities, including under the DRIP.
Capital Expenditures
The compression services business is capital intensive, requiring significant investment to maintain, expand, and upgrade existing operations. Our capital requirements primarily have consisted of, and we anticipate that our capital requirements will continue primarily to consist of, the following:
maintenance capital expenditures, which are capital expenditures made to maintain the operating capacity of our assets and extend their useful lives, to replace partially or fully depreciated assets, or other capital expenditures that are incurred in maintaining our existing business and related operating income; and
expansion capital expenditures, which are capital expenditures made to expand the operating capacity or operating-income capacity of assets, including by acquisition of compression units or through modification of existing compression units to increase their capacity, or to replace certain partially or fully depreciated assets that at the time of replacement were not generating operating income.
We classify capital expenditures as maintenance or expansion on an individual-asset basis. Over the long term, we expect that our maintenance capital expenditure requirements will continue to increase as the overall size and age of our fleet increases. Our aggregate maintenance capital expenditures for the six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, were $11.4 million and $12.0 million, respectively. We currently plan to spend approximately $25.0 million in maintenance capital expenditures for the year 2023, including parts consumed from inventory.
Without giving effect to any equipment that we may acquire pursuant to any future acquisitions, we currently plan to spend between $260.0 million and $270.0 million in expansion capital expenditures for the year 2023. Our expansion capital expenditures for the six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, were $122.8 million and $52.3 million, respectively.
As of June 30, 2023, we had binding commitments to purchase $121.4 million worth of additional compression units and serialized parts, all of which is expected to be settled within the next twelve months and $95.7 million of which is expected to be settled by year-end 2023.
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Cash Flows
The following table summarizes our sources and uses of cash for the six months ended June 30, 2023, and 2022, (in thousands):
Six Months Ended June 30,
20232022
Net cash provided by operating activities$130,209 $129,282 
Net cash used in investing activities(105,309)(42,870)
Net cash used in financing activities(24,904)(86,412)
Net cash provided by operating activities. The $0.9 million increase in net cash provided by operating activities for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to (i) a $41.5 million increase in Adjusted gross margin, partially offset by (ii) a $20.7 million increase in inventory purchases and (iii) a $17.9 million increase in cash paid for interest expense, net of capitalized amounts.
Net cash used in investing activities. The $62.4 million increase in net cash used in investing activities for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to a $62.6 million increase in capital expenditures, for purchases of new compression units, reconfiguration costs, and other equipment.
Net cash used in financing activities. The $61.5 million decrease in net cash used in financing activities for the six months ended June 30, 2023, compared to the six months ended June 30, 2022, primarily was due to a $62.2 million increase in net borrowings under the Credit Agreement.
Revolving Credit Facility
As of June 30, 2023, we had outstanding borrowings under the Credit Agreement of $750.4 million, $849.6 million of availability and, subject to compliance with the applicable financial covenants, available borrowing capacity of $327.6 million. As of June 30, 2023, we were in compliance with all of our covenants under the Credit Agreement.
As of July 27, 2023, we had outstanding borrowings under the Credit Agreement of $765.0 million.
For a more detailed description of the Credit Agreement, see Note 8 to our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 “Financial Statements” of this report and Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” included in our 2022 Annual Report.
Senior Notes
As of June 30, 2023, we had $725.0 million and $750.0 million aggregate principal amount outstanding on our Senior Notes 2026 and Senior Notes 2027, respectively.
The Senior Notes 2026 are due on April 1, 2026, and accrue interest at the rate of 6.875% per year. Interest on the Senior Notes 2026 is payable semi-annually in arrears on each of April 1 and October 1.
The Senior Notes 2027 are due on September 1, 2027, and accrue interest at the rate of 6.875% per year. Interest on the Senior Notes 2027 is payable semi-annually in arrears on each of March 1 and September 1.
For more detailed descriptions of the Senior Notes 2026 and Senior Notes 2027, see Note 8 to our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 “Financial Statements” of this report and Note 9 to the consolidated financial statements in Part II, Item 8 “Financial Statements and Supplementary Data” included in our 2022 Annual Report.
Derivative Instrument
In April 2023, we entered into an interest-rate swap to manage interest-rate risk associated with the floating-rate Credit Agreement. See Note 7 to our unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements in Part I, Item 1 “Financial Statements” of this report for additional information on the interest-rate swap.
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DRIP
During the six months ended June 30, 2023, distributions of $1.0 million were reinvested under the DRIP resulting in the issuance of 50,800 common units. Such distributions are treated as non-cash transactions in the accompanying unaudited condensed consolidated statements of cash flows included under Part I, Item 1 “Financial Statements” of this report.
Non-GAAP Financial Measures
Adjusted Gross Margin
Adjusted gross margin is a non-GAAP financial measure. We define Adjusted gross margin as revenue less cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization expense. We believe Adjusted gross margin is useful to investors as a supplemental measure of our operating profitability. Adjusted gross margin primarily is impacted by the pricing trends for service operations and cost of operations, including labor rates for service technicians, volume, and per-unit costs for lubricant oils, quantity and pricing of routine preventative maintenance on compression units, and property tax rates on compression units. Adjusted gross margin should not be considered an alternative to, or more meaningful than, gross margin or any other measure presented in accordance with GAAP. Moreover, our Adjusted gross margin, as presented, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies. Because we capitalize assets, depreciation and amortization of equipment is a necessary element of our cost structure. To compensate for the limitations of Adjusted gross margin as a measure of our performance, we believe it is important to consider gross margin determined under GAAP, as well as Adjusted gross margin, to evaluate our operating profitability.
The following table reconciles Adjusted gross margin to gross margin, its most directly comparable GAAP financial measure, for each of the periods presented (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Total revenues$206,920 $171,461 $404,044 $334,873 
Cost of operations, exclusive of depreciation and amortization(69,922)(55,158)(136,587)(108,890)
Depreciation and amortization(60,039)(58,959)(119,525)(118,023)
Gross margin$76,959 $57,344 $147,932 $107,960 
Depreciation and amortization60,039 58,959 119,525 118,023 
Adjusted gross margin$136,998 $116,303 $267,457 $225,983 
Adjusted EBITDA
We define EBITDA as net income (loss) before net interest expense, depreciation and amortization expense, and income tax expense (benefit). We define Adjusted EBITDA as EBITDA plus impairment of compression equipment, impairment of goodwill, interest income on capital leases, unit-based compensation expense (benefit), severance charges, certain transaction expenses, loss (gain) on disposition of assets, loss (gain) on derivative instrument, and other. We view Adjusted EBITDA as one of management’s primary tools for evaluating our results of operations, and we track this item on a monthly basis as an absolute amount and as a percentage of revenue compared to the prior month, year-to-date, prior year, and budget. Adjusted EBITDA is used as a supplemental financial measure by our management and external users of our financial statements, such as investors and commercial banks, to assess:
the financial performance of our assets without regard to the impact of financing methods, capital structure, or the historical cost basis of our assets;
the viability of capital expenditure projects and the overall rates of return on alternative investment opportunities;
the ability of our assets to generate cash sufficient to make debt payments and pay distributions; and
our operating performance as compared to those of other companies in our industry without regard to the impact of financing methods and capital structure.
We believe Adjusted EBITDA provides useful information to investors because, when viewed in conjunction with our GAAP results and the accompanying reconciliations, it may provide a more complete assessment of our performance as compared to considering solely GAAP results. We also believe that external users of our financial statements benefit from having access to the same financial measures that management uses to evaluate the results of our business.
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Adjusted EBITDA should not be considered an alternative to, or more meaningful than, net income (loss), operating income (loss), cash flows from operating activities, or any other measure presented in accordance with GAAP. Moreover, our Adjusted EBITDA, as presented, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies.
Because we use capital assets, depreciation, impairment of compression equipment, loss (gain) on disposition of assets, and the interest cost of acquiring compression equipment also are necessary elements of our aggregate costs. Unit-based compensation expense related to equity awards granted to employees also is a meaningful business expense. Therefore, measures that exclude these cost elements have material limitations. To compensate for these limitations, we believe that it is important to consider net income (loss) and net cash provided by operating activities as determined under GAAP, as well as Adjusted EBITDA, to evaluate our financial performance and liquidity. Our Adjusted EBITDA excludes some, but not all, items that affect net income (loss) and net cash provided by operating activities, and these excluded items may vary among companies. Management compensates for the limitations of Adjusted EBITDA as an analytical tool by reviewing comparable GAAP measures, understanding the differences between the measures, and incorporating this knowledge into their decision making.
The following table reconciles Adjusted EBITDA to net income and net cash provided by operating activities, its most directly comparable GAAP financial measures, for each of the periods presented (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Net income$23,584 $9,086 $34,525 $12,340 
Interest expense, net42,045 33,079 81,835 64,917 
Depreciation and amortization60,039 58,959 119,525 118,023 
Income tax expense405 255 755 281 
EBITDA$126,073 $101,379 $236,640 $195,561 
Unit-based compensation expense (1)2,849 2,998 9,628 6,708 
Transaction expenses (2)— — — 27 
Severance charges44 — 44 251 
Loss (gain) on disposition of assets309 1,031 (67)852 
Gain on derivative instrument(14,550)— (14,550)— 
Impairment of compression equipment (3)10,273 — 11,464 432 
Adjusted EBITDA$124,998 $105,408 $243,159 $203,831 
Interest expense, net(42,045)(33,079)(81,835)(64,917)
Non-cash interest expense1,819 1,815 3,641 3,637 
Income tax expense(405)(255)(755)(281)
Transaction expenses— — — (27)
Severance charges(44)— (44)(251)
Cash received on derivative instrument1,216 — 1,216 — 
Other34 (179)19 (883)
Changes in operating assets and liabilities2,298 20,518 (35,192)(11,827)
Net cash provided by operating activities$87,871 $94,228 $130,209 $129,282 
________________________________
(1)For the three and six months ended June 30, 2023, unit-based compensation expense included $1.1 million and $2.2 million, respectively, of cash payments related to quarterly payments of DERs on outstanding phantom unit awards. For the three and six months ended June 30, 2022, unit-based compensation expense included $1.2 million and $2.3 million, respectively, of cash payments related to quarterly payments of DERs on outstanding phantom unit awards. The remainder of unit-based compensation expense for all periods was related to non-cash adjustments to the unit-based compensation liability.
(2)Represents certain expenses related to potential and completed transactions and other items. We believe it is useful to investors to exclude these expenses.
(3)Represents non-cash charges incurred to decrease the carrying value of long-lived assets with recorded values that are not expected to be recovered through future cash flows.
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Distributable Cash Flow
We define DCF as net income (loss) plus non-cash interest expense, non-cash income tax expense (benefit), depreciation and amortization expense, unit-based compensation expense (benefit), impairment of compression equipment, impairment of goodwill, certain transaction expenses, severance charges, loss (gain) on disposition of assets, change in fair value of derivative instrument, proceeds from insurance recovery, and other, less distributions on Preferred Units and maintenance capital expenditures.
We believe DCF is an important measure of operating performance because it allows management, investors, and others to compare the cash flows that we generate (after distributions on the Preferred Units but prior to any retained cash reserves established by the General Partner and the effect of the DRIP) to the cash distributions that we expect to pay our common unitholders.
DCF should not be considered an alternative to, or more meaningful than, net income (loss), operating income (loss), cash flows from operating activities, or any other measure presented in accordance with GAAP. Moreover, our DCF, as presented, may not be comparable to similarly titled measures of other companies.
Because we use capital assets, depreciation, impairment of compression equipment, loss (gain) on disposition of assets, the interest cost of acquiring compression equipment, and maintenance capital expenditures are necessary components of our aggregate costs. Unit-based compensation expense related to equity awards granted to employees also is a meaningful business expense. Therefore, measures that exclude these cost elements have material limitations. To compensate for these limitations, we believe that it is important to consider net income (loss) and net cash provided by operating activities as determined under GAAP, as well as DCF, to evaluate our financial performance and liquidity. Our DCF excludes some, but not all, items that affect net income (loss) and net cash provided by operating activities, and these excluded items may vary among companies. Management compensates for the limitations of DCF as an analytical tool by reviewing comparable GAAP measures, understanding the differences between the measures, and incorporating this knowledge into their decision making.
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The following table reconciles DCF to net income and net cash provided by operating activities, its most directly comparable GAAP financial measures, for each of the periods presented (in thousands):
Three Months Ended June 30,Six Months Ended June 30,
2023202220232022
Net income$23,584 $9,086 $34,525 $12,340 
Non-cash interest expense1,819 1,815 3,641 3,637 
Depreciation and amortization60,039 58,959 119,525 118,023 
Non-cash income tax expense (benefit)34 21 19 (183)
Unit-based compensation expense (1)2,849 2,998 9,628 6,708 
Transaction expenses (2)— — — 27 
Severance charges44 — 44 251 
Loss (gain) on disposition of assets309 1,031 (67)852 
Change in fair value of derivative instrument(13,334)— (13,334)— 
Impairment of compression equipment (3)10,273 — 11,464 432 
Distributions on Preferred Units(12,188)(12,188)(24,375)(24,375)
Maintenance capital expenditures (4)(6,391)(6,146)(11,419)(11,990)
DCF$67,038 $55,576 $129,651 $105,722 
Maintenance capital expenditures6,391 6,146 11,419 11,990 
Transaction expenses— — — (27)
Severance charges(44)— (44)